Bailey, Kenneth E.. The Cross & the Prodigal: Luke 15 Through the eyes of Middle Eastern Peasants, second edition. (IVP Books, Downers Grove IL, 2005).
————————- Finding the Lost Cultural Keys to Luke 15. (Concordia Publishing House, St. Louis MO, 1992).
————————- Jacob and the Prodigal: How Jesus Retold Israel’s Story. (Intervarsity Press, Downers Grove IL, 2003).
Byrne, Brendan. The Hospitality of God: a Reading of Luke’s Gospel. (Liturgical Press, 2000 , Collegeville MN).
Craddock, Fred B. Luke. Part of Interpretation: A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching edited by James L. Mays. (John Knox Press, Louisville, 1990).
Culy, Martin M., Mikeal C. Parsons, and Joshua J. Stigall. Luke: A Handbook on the Greek Text. (Baylor University Press, 2010, Waco TX).
Fitzmyer, Joseph A. The Gospel According to Luke I – IX. A New translation with Introduction and commentary. Part of the Anchor Bible Commentary Series edited by W. F. Albright and David Noel Freedman. (Doubleday, New York, 1970).
————————– The Gospel According to Luke X – XXIV. A New translation with Introduction and commentary. Part of the Anchor Bible Commentary Series edited by W. F. Albright and David Noel Freedman. (Doubleday, New York, 1985).
Gillman, John. Luke: Stories of Joy and Salvation. Part of the Spiritual Commentaries on the Bible series edited by Mary Ann Getty-Sullivan. (New City Press, Hyde Park NY, 2002).
Gonzalez, Justo L. Luke. Part of the Belief: A theological commentary on the Bible series, Amy Plantinga Pauw and William C. Placher General Editors. (Westminster John Knox Press, Louisville, 2010).
Hendrickx, Herman. The Third Gospel for the Third World. (Liturgical Press, Collegeville MN, 1997).
- Volume One – Luke 1:1-2:52
- Volume Two – A Luke 3:1-6:49
- Volume Two – B Luke 7:1-9:50
- Volume Three – A Luke 9:51-13:21
- Volume Three – B Luke 13:22-17:10
- Volume Three-C Luke 17:11-19:44
- Volume Four – A Luke 19:45-21:38
Johnson, Luke Timothy. The Gospel of Luke. Part of the Sacra Pagina biblical commentary series edited by Daniel J. Harrington S.J.. (Liturgical Press, Collegeville MN, 1991).
Levine, Amy-Jill and Marc Zvi Brettler editors. The Jewish Annotated New Testament / New Revised Standard Version Bible Translation. (Oxford University Press, New York, 2011).
Marshall, I. Howard. The Gospel of Luke. Part of the New International Greek Testament Commentary (NIGTC) series edited by I. Howard Marshall and Donald A. Hagner. (Eerdmans, 1978, Grand Rapids MI)
McKenna, Megan. Luke: The Book of Blessings and Woes. (New City Press, Hyde Park NY, 2009).
Patella, Michael F.. The Gospel According to Luke. Part of the New Collegeville Bible Commentary edited by Daniel Durken O.S.B. (Liturgical Press, Collegeville MN, 2005).
Walker, Thomas W.. Luke. Part of the Interpretation Bible Studies series . (Westminster John Knox Press, Louisville, 2001).
The Mission of the 12
Hendrickx 2B, p. 216,217: “In Luke 9:1-6 the reader is introduced to Luke’s understanding of prophetic succession. Jesus’ ministry has been summarized in terms of being ‘mighty in word and deed’ with particular reference to exorcism, healing, and preaching the Kingdom of God. And now the Twelve are given ‘power and authority’ to carry on the same ministry that Jesus has had.”
Hendrickx 2B, p. 217: Jesus assumes 5 customary acts of hospitality of the times:
- Offering a drink of water
- Washing the feet of the guest
- Greeting the guest with a kiss
- Anointing or washing his head
- Offering their guest something to eat.
Don’t move from house to house seeking better accommodations.
Herod’s Opinion of Jesus
Herod’s question – “Who is this?” has been addressed in the episodes before this and in the ones after it. Luke begins to deal with it more and more directly. It is the question of the first readers / hearers as well as of Christians ever since.
Hendrickx 2B, p. 229: “Herod’s perplexity or anxiety is ominous: Anxious rulers always bode ill for those in their power. In fact, Herod appears in the narrative almost as a bad omen.”
The Return of the 12, Feeding of 5,000
On being interrupted – basic lesson of ministry is that people coming (on phone, to office etc.) are not an interruption or disruption, they are the purpose for ministry.
Hendrickx 2B, p. 237: Emmaus and Acts: Luke describes distribution of food by the early church as an extension of this miracle story (Feed them yourselves)
Peter’s Confession about Jesus and The First Prediction of the Passion
Hendrickx 2B, p. 241: Confession of Peter is the first direct answer offered to Herod’s question, with the feeding being an important piece of the answer. Jesus feeds the people as God fed Israel manna in desert, does mighty deeds.
Hendrickx 2B, p. 249: passion prediction “… serves basically the same purpose in Luke that I has in Mark, as a corrective to the acknowledged messiahship of Jesus. The corrective, however, is far more closely linked to Peter’s Confession in Luke and provides still a further answer to Herod’s question. Put on the lips of Jesus, it says in effect that he may be the Messiah, but his is such as the suffering Son of Man: He will be recognized as Messiah insofar as he is seen as the one predestined for suffering and death as the Son of Man.”
Conditions of Discipleship
This and following sayings appear a second time later in Luke so they are important to him.
To take up one’s cross daily emphasizes not a “once and for all heroic type” act but the everyday sacrifice and sufferings of love for God and others
Hendrickx 2B, p. 255: “The saying is aimed at those who want to be held – or who hold themselves – in high esteem, not at persons whose value and dignity as human beings is already threatened. Furthermore, the saying does not celebrate self-denial for its own sake, but rather, in the name and for the cause of Jesus.” He sees the key factor as “shame” – denial of / by one’s family and clan due to belief in Jesus as the process of leaving Judaism is underway
Hendrickx 2B, p. 262 suggests that in Jesus the Kingdom has already begun, is not yet come in full power and glory (as it will in the end times). Luke does not expect (as Paul and the earliest church had) the full coming of the Kingdom soon.
The Transfiguration of Jesus
Moses on Mt. Sinai radiant – reflecting the glory of God. See Exodus 24. Hendrickx 2B, p. 263 – thrust of the story is not the transformation or the company as much as the voice and who it says Jesus is. He goes on to suggest that it is not a resurrection appearance that has been inserted early in the story but an “apocalyptic vision’ – a vision into the future. Perhaps the two with Jesus in earliest tradition were ‘angels’ and later identified as Moses and Elijah. The inter-testamental (between them) literature was apocalyptic in nature, focused on end of the world coming soon, and this literature re-interpreted Exodus 24 – and helped to shape the pre-Marcan story that is the Transfiguration.
Hendrixckx 2B, p. 291: the following four vignettes show that the disciples remain un-ready: they lack power, understanding, humility and sympathy.
Healing of a Boy with a Demon
Hendrickx 2B, p. 295: “The father is a classic peasant victim. Since his son could not marry, the father faced the end of the family line, the loss of its land, and hence its place in the village. All members of his extended family were thus imperiled.”
Second Prediction of Passion
Hendrickx 2B p. 299 – The disciples “don’t get it” for a reason! “How could someone who commands demons fall prey to human power?’
Hendrickx 2B p. 301: “It is not coincidental that the two realities concerning the person and ministry of Jesus – his exalted status and his impending dishonor – are set side by side. Rather, there is a studied transition from one to the other, so that Jesus’ words of doom to his disciples are spoken ‘while everyone was amazed.’”
Greatest in the Kingdom
In Mediterranean culture honor / shame was at the core. So disputes over place would have been both overt and covert. Are we much different today? (Who has a bigger office? A newer computer? A bigger salary? A bigger home or car ….)
Hendrickx 2B p. 307: “That is, they had engaged in boundary-making on the basis of conventional notions of perceived honor. He did not belong to the community around Jesus, so his behavior was disallowed. It is question of union rights. Did others, besides the apostles, have the privilege of exorcising? The irony is that this unnamed exorcist had been working in the name of Jesus – Just as Jesus’ disciples had been instructed to do – and he had been successful in the very arena of salvific activity in which the disciples had just been found wanting.”
The Journey to Jerusalem begins
Departure for Jerusalem, Samaritan Inhospitality
Hendrickx 3A p. 6 – rejection in Nazareth began the Galilean teaching section, rejection here begins the trip to Jerusalem.
2 Kings 1:9-12
Then the king sent a captain with his company of fifty men after Elijah. The prophet was seated on a hilltop when he found him. He said, “Man of God, the king commands you, ‘Come down.’” Elijah answered the captain, “Well, if I am a man of God, may fire come down from heaven and consume you and your fifty men.” And fire came down from heaven and consumed him and his fifty men.
The king sent another captain with his company of fifty men after Elijah. He shouted up and said, “Man of God, the king says, ‘Come down immediately!’” Elijah answered them, “If I am a man of God, may fire come down from heaven and consume you and your fifty men.” And divine fire* came down from heaven and consumed him and his fifty men.
Would-be Followers of Jesus
Being a disciple is “all-in”, those who aren’t – aren’t disciples.
Hendrickx 3A p. 17: “Jesus’ sobering answer drives home the gravity of discipleship. The son of Man is en route; he lives the life of a homeless wanderer, having no shelter, no home, no family – none of the things that people usually consider requisite for ordinary life. Even animals are better off.”
On dead burying the dead Hendrickx 3A p. 19 ff has an extended discussion. Burial within 24 hours a key ethical obligation for Jews, a second re-burial of the bones a year later fell to “kin”. Jesus refers to this activity and tells a follower that the spiritually dead non-follower kin can take care of that, he is to follow.
These sayings involve hyperbole and are not meant as commands to be literally enacted.
Mission of the 72 and Reproaches to Unrepentant Towns
Hendrickx 3A p. 24: Eat what you are served without qualms about dietary laws.
The disciples are to live and travel in complete dependence on God. Not their “sales” or “evangelical” skills. No trappings of beggars, no stuff as if they had wealth.
Return of the 72
Hendrickx 3A p. 42: “The power that was manifested as salvation in these houses attested the presence of the kingly reign of God in Jesus through these ambassadors. This salvation and not their thrilling display of mighty works is to be the object of their joy.” He goes on to note that the fall of Satan as described is not a fall due to his own sin but to the reality of being defeated. Figuratively speaking. OR he notes on p. 43 – it could refer to Jesus “seeing” the demons who were expelled by the disciples.
Praise of the Father
Hendrickx 3A p. 50: “Jesus does not invite renunciation of the intellect, but participation in the kingdom does not depend on intellectual resources. He lays the ax on snob appeal. In the Lukan context the ‘infants’ are the disciples, contrasted with the scribes and others of Jesus’ ministry who do not listen to him.” Divine reversal / last shall be first and first shall be last.
Privileges of Discipleship
Hendrickx 3A p. 53: “The reference to the ‘many prophets and kings’ focuses attention on the magnitude of the blessing enjoyed. There is not esoteric knowledge yet to be revealed, no ‘secrets of the pyramids.’ Those who are associated with Jesus and hear his word have knowledge that count in the New Age.”
Greatest Commandment & Parable of the Good Samaritan
The story is an example of how the wise etc. have not understood Jesus.
Hendrickx 3A p. 58: “Jesus, challenged with respect to his status as a teacher maintains common ground with the expert on the Law while at the same time redirecting the challenge with a counter-question. Inquiring into the content of the Law, Jesus assumes and endorses its ongoing normativity.” Hendrickx goes on – the real test was not the status of this greatest commandment but the application – who is my neighbor? This remains true today – Rabbi Starr asks this same question and answers it differently from Jewish tradition.
Hendrickx 3A p. 64: “According to rabbinic tradition Jericho was the chief priestly city, half the total of the twenty four courses of priests, or of those serving at any one time, being resident there. The Levites, who numbered about ten thousand, and were also divided into twenty-four courses, were a kind of inferior clergy with subordinate tasks in the temple service.”
Hendrickx 3A p. 65: “All means must be used to save his life. … According to the oral tradition, every law in the Torah may be broken if it will extend and save life. In fact, if it is a matter of life and death, the letter of the Law must be broken in order to observe the spirit of the Law, which is to give life. The oral law of the Pharisees and their rabbinic heirs placed extreme value on saving human life.”
Hendrickx 3A p. 66: “In either case, whether the unclothed, beaten man along the road was dead or alive, the priest and the Levite were required to stop. According to the oral law, they either had to bury the dead or give life-sustaining assistance to someone in need. But they were Sadducees, and they rejected the oral Torah.” (I have never heard that interpretation!)
Hendrickx 3A p. 67: “Within their world, their association with the temple commends them as persons of exemplary piety whose actions would be regarded as self-evidently righteous. They are accustomed to being evaluated on the basis of their ancestry, not on the basis of their performance.”
Hendrickx 3A p. 68 notes that like the Sadducees the Samaritans did not accept an oral Law, only the written 5 books of Moses!!!! Yet he stopped and they did not.
Martha and Mary
Hendrickx 3A p. 77: NOT an example of contemplative vs. active life. Would be WAY too allegorical.
p. 79: Martha is the homeowner, a person of some status seeing that she is female. She is “hospitable” in the way that the sending of the 72 hoped for.
p. 81 Mary is her sister, sits at the feet of Jesus. To sit at the feet of the teacher was a sign of respect and deep appreciation.
Hendrickx argues further that this is a story about leadership in the early church (using women as examples which indicates that they did in fact actually function as leaders). About the tension among partner-leaders for right balance between doing and praying / studying. Martha is not “put down” but advised that the answer to her anxiety about all that she needs to be doing is to ALSO engage in study and prayer, which will settle her down.